Topic: News and Publications

Voice of Youth

Posted on August 2, 2018

“I’m not gonna tell you what gives me hope, I’m going to tell you what I hope comes out of this. I really hope we don’t have to keep having these same conversations that have been going on for more than 60 years, and that we do not have to reform or to reimagine child welfare, and that the government can fully be supportive and be involved and that they walk in the same direction as us. And that we do not have to keep having these legal battles or just having the same dialogue that each government has with us.” – Reina Foster, former foster child and advocate on behalf of First Nations kids and youth in care [1]

Parity for Kinship Foster Caregivers (Chronicle of Social Change, August 2018)

Improve Federal Supports for Foster Parents (Chronicle of Social Change, August 2018)

Supporting Prevention, Assessing Childhood Trauma (Chronicle of Social Change, August 2018)

Stable Placement Equals Stable Education (Chronicle of Social Change, July 2018)

Getting Serious About Siblings (Chronicle of Social Change, July 2018)

Protecting LGBTQ Rights in Child Welfare (Chronicle of Social Change, July 2018)

Universal Foster Care to Age 21 (Chronicle of Social Change, July 2018)

Mentoring and College Support for Foster Youth (Chronicle of Social Change, July 2018)

Improving Foster Care for Refugee Minors (Chronicle of Social Change, July 2018)

Moving Toward Trauma-Informed Schools (Chronicle of Social Change, July 2018)

Jaclyn King Has Overcome a lot to get Where She is Today – She is Doing More Than Surviving, She is Thriving (Nelson Star, June 2018)

Successful MMA Fighter Justin Willis Aims to Raise Awareness About the Foster Care System and the Mistreatment he Endured (MMA, June 2018)

Brothers Share Details of Their Lives in Foster Care With Their Program “Decade Out” – Travelling Around the Country Talking to Numerous Agencies, Groups, Churches, Colleges, and Others (Canton Rep, June 2018)

Reimaging the Child Welfare System – by Reina Foster (Journal of Law and Social Policy, 2018)

“One Thing I do Recall is Feeling Powerless and Unprotected” – Reina Foster (The Tyee, June 2018)

After an Abusive Childhood in Foster Care, This Executive Sees Success as Revenge (Washington Post, June 2018)

Education Policy Needs to Catch up to the Needs of Foster Care Youth (Teen Vogue, June 2018)

Foster Care Forces me to Conceal my Identity as a Queer, Black, Muslim Person (Teen Vogue, June 2018)

Marlo Hampton, Who Grew up in the Foster Care System, is Using Her Celebrity Status as a Catalyst for Change – She Aims to Encourage Young Girls in the Foster Care System to Excel Beyond Their Current Status and Succeed in All Areas of Their Lives (The Oracle, May 2018)

I Was a Foster Child, and Now I’m a Foster Care Advocate (Teen Vogue, May 2018)

How Foster Care Has Stripped Native American Children of their Own Cultures (Teen Vogue, May 2018)

How Foster Care can Split up Siblings (Teen Vogue, May 2018)

How Prevention Services Could Help Youth Avoid the Foster Care System (Teen Vogue, May 2018)

How Foster Care Works in the United States (Teen Vogue, May 2018)

Indigenous Designer who Experienced Foster Care and Childhood Abuse, Sees Fashion as a Way to Heal and Inspire (CBC News, May 2018)

[1] Katie Hyslop, “Lessons from Care: ‘One Thing I Do Recall Is Feeling Powerless and Unprotected’” June 4, 2108

Legislation and Regulation

Posted on August 2, 2018

Governments in Canada and the U.S. have a significant role to play in addressing gaps in the current Child Welfare system. Government leaders are urged to consider innovative legislative and regulatory levers to best serve the priority needs of youth in government care.

Early Learning Programs for Indigenous Kids get $30M Boost (Surrey Now Leader, May 2018)

Changes to Child Protection Act Greeted With Cautious Optimism (CBC News, May 2018)

Increase in Indigenous Candidates in Ontario Election (CBC News, May 2018)

Possibility of First Indigenous Mayor of Vancouver Prompts Call for More Diversity in City Politics (CBC News, May 2018)

Chiefs of Ontario Sign Joint Commitment on Policy and Funding Reform for First Nations Child and Family Services (Net News Ledger, May 2018)

NDP Bill Aims to Prevent Child Apprehensions Due to Poverty (CBC News, May 2018)

Ontario Strengthens Legislation for Child, Youth and Family Services (Ministry of Children and Youth Services, 2018)

Senators Recommend Delaying Cannabis Bill For a Year to Address Indigenous Issues (CBC News, May 2018)

Indigenous Leaders Hold Rare Special Meeting on Federal Legislation (APTN News, May 2018)

Trudeau Promises First Nations Leaders Fundamental Change (CBC News, May 2018)

Media statement on the proclamation of the new CYFSA (Ontario Child Advocate, April 2018)

Mental Health

Posted on August 2, 2018

“The research has shown that the earlier we can intervene, particularly with evidence-based interventions, the better outcomes we see later on. The early years of childhood lay a foundation for future academic, social, emotional, and behavioural success. If we can teach children the skills they need in their formative years, they can carry these skills with them through their elementary years and beyond. On the other hand, if we ignore a problem a child is having, that problem can grow over time and become difficult to remediate.” – Danielle Rannazzisi, PhD [1]

Toronto 5-year Old Waiting 10 Months for Care (Children’s Mental Health Ontario, 2018)

How Family Separation Can Affect Kids’ Brains (NY Post, June 2018)

‘I’m in Crisis’ – Services Lacking for Teens with Serious Mental Health Issues (Windsor Star, May 2018)

Judge Darcy Urges Educators to Address ‘Very Big Gap’ in Youth Mental Health (The Star, May 2018)

New Mental Health and Addiction Plan to Address Service Gaps (Manitoba Post, May 2018)

Experiences and Perceptions of Indigenous Patients Connecting with Indigenous Elders in an Inner City Primary Care Partnership for Mental Health and Wellbeing (CMAJ, May 2018)

All Foster Carers Need Mental Health Training (Huffington Post, May 2018)

Why Early Intervention is so Important for Children’s Mental Health Issues (Health Line, May 2018)

Anishinaabe Police Officer Walking Across Canada for Indigenous Youth Mental Health (CBC News, May 2018)

Wait Times for Youth Mental-Health Services in Saskatchewan ‘Shameful’ (CJME, April 2018)

Province Developing Youth Suicide Prevention Plan (Calgary Herald, April 2018)

Losing Children to Foster Care Endangers Mothers’ Lives (National Post, March 2018)

[1] Leah Campbell, “Why Early Intervention Is So Important for Children’s Mental Health Issues” May 1, 2018

A Neurocomputational Investigation of Reinforcement-Based Decision Making as a Candidate Latent Vulnerability Mechanism in Maltreated Children (Cambridge University, December 2017)

Nadine Burke Harris: How Does Trauma Affect a Child’s DNA? (National Public Radio, August 2017)

Ipsos Reid Ranks Canadians’ Concern for Kids

Posted on October 24, 2017


One in Four (23%) Say Causes Related to Health & Diseases Are Most Personally Important to Them: Three Times Ahead of Children at Risk & Foster Care (IPSOS Reid, 2017)

View article

Health Trumps All: Canadians Three Times More Likely to State Causes Related to Health as Most Important to Them Compared to Those for At-Risk Children and Foster Care (IPSOS Reid, 2013)

View article

Economic & Societal Structure Issues

Posted on October 2, 2017

Children in foster care have the odds stacked against them as they transition into adulthood. Lacking the financial and moral support that most Canadian children take for granted, they struggle to cope with the challenges of adult life. As a result, children in foster care are far less likely to graduate from high school than the average Canadian and have a much greater likelihood of suffering from mental health problems. Chronic unemployment, unplanned parenthood, homelessness, and incarceration are just some of the problems they encounter, with significant social and economic costs as a result.

Child welfare agencies throughout the country work hard to ensure that the children’s basic needs are met while they are living in the care of the state. However, these agencies lack the resources necessary to help these children succeed as they “age out” of care. This briefing argues that there is both a humanitarian and a compelling economic case for action.

Success For All: Investing in the Future of Canadian Children in Care, (The Conference Board of Canada, April 2014)
View Article

What Good Data Mean for Black Youth in Foster Care (The Globe and Mail, July 2018)

Protect Privacy of Foster Children (Toronto Star, July 2018)

Forcing Faith-Based Agencies Out of the System is a Disservice to Women (The Hill, July 2018)

Homeless Child Welfare Wards (Winnipeg Sun, July 2018)

Children Committing Serious Crimes Just to Find Something to Eat (AU News, July 2018)

Abuse, Neglect, and a System that Failed: The Tragic Lives of the Hart Children. Programs designed to protect children ushered six siblings to their deaths — and no one has been held accountable since their adoptive mother drove them off a cliff (Washington Post, July 2018)

How Toronto’s New Courthouse Could Jeopardize Fragile Youth Services (The Lawyers Daily, June 2018)

B.C. Closes Third Group Home for Children Over Staff-Behaviour Concerns (Globe and Mail, June 2018)

B.C. Child Representative Has Grave Concerns About Oversight of Group Homes (National Post, June 2018)

Separated Migrant Children in Foster Care Are Now in Limbo After Trump’s Immigration Order (TIME, June 2018)

Separations End, but Foster Care, Shelters Remain Overwhelmed (Boston Globe, June 2018)

More Separated Migrant Kids Arrive at Foster Care in Harlem (NY Post, June 2018)

Child-Welfare Experts Alarmed by Family Separation at U.S. Boarder (CTV News, June 2018)

Separating Children from Parents at the Boarder Causes Lifelong Damage (Harvard Medical School, June 2018)

I’m a Judge who Decides if Children Should be Separated from Abusive Parents. Here’s How Trump’s Immigration Policy Should Change (TIME, June 2018)

One Million Missing: Undercount of Young Kids in 2020 Census Threatens Gains (The Annie E. Casey Foundation, June 2018)

Watch: Funding Evidence-Based Programs in Child Welfare with the Family First Act (The Annie E. Casey Foundation, June 2018)

Report shows 23 deaths in Utah child welfare cases (Salt Lake Tribute, June 2018)

Number of Alberta Child Welfare Deaths Increased Last Year (Edmonton Journal, June 2018)

N.W.T. Government Faces Lawsuit Over Allegations it Failed to Protect Children from Sexual Abuse (CBC News, June 2018)

Babies Born to Teen Mothers in Manitoba’s Child Welfare System More Likely to be Placed in Care (The Globe and Mail, May 2018)

We’re Separating Babies from Their Teenage Mothers in Care, Perpetuating a Never-ending Cycle (CBC News, May 2018)

Foster Families Badly Needed Across the Province for Children and Youth with Complex Needs (CBC News, May 2018)

May is National Foster Care Month. These Types of Things Tend to Come and go, but it Urgently Deserves Attention (National Review, May 2018)

Report Explores How Kids Leave Foster Care (The Annie E. Casey Foundation, February 2018)

Canada lags when it comes to child hunger, violence: UNICEF ranking (CBC, July 2017)

Report shines light on poverty’s role on kids in CAS system (Toronto Star, August 2016)

Jury in Jeffrey Baldwin inquest puts onus for child welfare on the community (Metro News, February, 2014)

Inquest hears 103 recommendations to prevent another case like starved, neglected Jeffrey Baldwin (National Post, February 2014)

Children In Poorest Neighborhoods Most Vulnerable To Fatal Child Abuse (Huffington Post, April 2013)

UNICEF Child Well-Being Index: Canada Ranked 17th Out Of 29 Wealthy Nations (Huffington Post, 2013)

Adoption Attitudes Survey (Dave Thomas Foundation, 2013)

Indigenous Children in Care

Posted on October 2, 2017

The Canadian Council of Child and Youth Advocates (the Council) submits this Special Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Committee) to highlight the critical circumstances facing Aboriginal children today. The Council is a national alliance of child advocates legally appointed by the Canadian provinces and territories. The Council members’ mandates include promoting and protecting children’s human rights, including the rights of Aboriginal children. In our role as advocates for Aboriginal children, and through their voices, we have identified critical systemic challenges impacting Aboriginal children’s lives and requiring urgent attention. This awareness has led us to contribute to the Committee’s review of Canada’s 2009 report4 by submitting this Special Report. We ask the Committee to consider our report, including our recommendations directed at improving the lives of these, and all, children.

Canada is Sending a Generation of Indigenous Children to Jail (Huffington Post, July 2018)

Indigenous Youth Need to be at Home and in the Community, not in Jail (CBC News, June 2018)

Child Removal Erodes Indigenous Communities (iPolitics, June 2018)

Indigenous Activist Draws Parallels Between Residential Schools and Children Detailed at US Boarder (CBC News, June 2018)

Little difference between U.S. child detention and CFS says Indigenous advocate (CBC News, June 2018)

Jane Philpott: On Canada’s own crisis of separating kids from parents (Maclean’s, June 2018)

Nearly Half of Youth Incarcerated are Indigenous: Data Released by Statistics Canada Shows Aboriginal Youth Made up 46% of Admissions to Correctional Services, While Only
Make up 8% of the Population (Global News, June 2018)

Committee Recommends Changes for Indigenous Inmates (Law Times News, June 2018)

Changes Slowly Coming to Indigenous Child Welfare in B.C. – Part five of a series (The Tyee, May 2018)

Issues in Child Welfare – Part four of a series (The Tyee, May 2018)

Lessons from Care – Part three of a series (The Tyee, May 2018)

Government Falling Short of Indigenous Child Welfare Crisis – Part two of a series (The Tyee, May 2018)

How Canada Created a Crisis in Indigenous Child Welfare – Part one of a series (The Tyee, May 2018)

Research Project Looks at the History of Indigenous Children in Care (Winnipeg Sun, May 2018)

Indigenous Youth Need Help Now (The Spec, May 2018)

Apologies Are Fine, But Indigenous Children Need Help Now (The Star, May 2018)

Sixties Scoop Survivors Raise Objections Over $750M Class Action Settlement (The Star, May 2018)

Indigenous Children Overrepresented in Canada’s Foster Care System (Maclean’s, 2018)

Manitoba Judge Urges Changes to Care System After Indigenous Teen’s Suicide Death (Global and Mail, April 2018)

Over-representation of Indigenous and Black Children in Ontario Child Welfare (Ontario Human Rights Commission, April 2018)

Indigenous Former Foster Care Wards Advocate to Overhaul ‘Shameful’ System (Huffington Post, April 2018)

Part 1: B.C.’s Invisible Families (The Star, April 2018)

Part 2: B.C.’s Invisible Families (The Star, April 2018)

Children and Youth Advocate to Review Inuit Child Welfare in Newfoundland and Labrador (APTN News, April 2018)

Edmonton Teen’s Group-Home Suicide Came Decade After Changes Recommended (CBC News, April 2018)

How The Suicides of Seven Indigenous Girls Revealed a Community Undone (The Star, April 2018)

Tina Fontaine’s Caregiver Calls for Changes in Manitoba to Curb Runaways (The Star, April 2018)

Indigenous Children Are Crying Out For Help in Canada (The Star, April 2018)

B.C.’s New Child-Protection Law Includes Indigenous Communities as Decision Makers (Globe and Mail, April 2018)

Six First-Nations and Metis Child-Welfare Agencies Claim Manitoba Government is Withholding 20 Percent of Funding (National Post, April 2018)

Federal Government has ‘Turned a Corner’ in First Nations Child Welfare (CTV News, April 2018)

Locked up at 12 – a Métis Woman Tries to Overcome the Inequalities in Canada’s Justice System (CBC News, March 2018)

Indigenous Mother to Get Child Back After She Was Taken Away by The Provence (Global News, March 2018)

B.C. Green MLA Wants Changes to How Child Welfare System Handles Indigenous Cases (Global News, March 2018)

Maori Experts Back Manitoba to Help Grow Indigenous-led Child Welfare Practices (CBC News, March 2018)

Federal Funding for Indigenous Child Welfare Does Not Go Far Enough (Cold Lake Sun, March 2018)

Winnipeg Summit Puts Spotlight on Indigenous Child-Welfare Laws (Winnipeg Free Press, March 2018)

Investigation Into The Deaths of Children Living in Residential Care, Including Seven Indigenous Children, Has Found Potential Criminality (APTN News, March 2018)

B.C. Working on Big Changes for Indigenous Child Welfare (National Observer, February 2018)

Indigenous Mother Under ‘Birth Alert” Fears She Will Lose Second Child (CBC News, January 2018)

Aboriginal Children – Canada Must Do Better (Canadian Council of Child and Youth Advocates, 2011)

$3.3 Million Pledged to Help Indigenous Families Keep Kids (Winnipeg Free Press, October 2017)

Manitoba Government Announces Child Welfare System Reform (October 2017)

Manitoba government vowing to reduce number of kids in care (Global News Winnipeg, October 2017)

Manitoba Chiefs Move to Take Over Children’s Welfare Services (Net Newsledger, October 2017)

‘It’s like they never existed’: Toronto monument will honour mistreated British Home Children (CBC, October 2017)

Manitoba’s child welfare crisis to be tackled through law, funding changes (CBC News Manitoba, October 2017)

Federal government commits funds for First Nations family advocacy in Manitoba (CTV News Winnipeg, October 2017)

Now is the time for Ottawa to create a path to progress with Indigenous people (Globe & Mail, September 2017)

Open letter to Justin Trudeau: Give First Nations children an equal chance (Globe & Mail, September 2017)

Indigenous Affairs Is A Sinking Ship. Naming 2 Captains Won’t Help (Huffington Post, September 2017)

Ontario calling new childcare agreement with Treaty 3 ‘historical moment’ (CBC, September 2017)

Saskatoon Indigenous homelessness initiatives receive federal boost (CBC, September 2017)

Justice, child welfare systems ‘failing our people,’ say Yukon First Nations (CBC, September 2017)


Ottawa spent $707,000 in legal fees fighting decision that protects Indigenous children (Toronto Star, June 2017)

Ottawa Continues to Fail Indigenous Children (Globe and Mail, June 2017)

The Canada Most People Don’t See (Macleans, June 2017)

Blackstock: Why does the government continue to discriminate against little kids? (Ottawa Citizen, June 2017)

What will it take for Ottawa finally to tackle Indigenous child-welfare crisis?: Editorial (Toronto Star, May 2017)

Youth in care deserve support till age 25 (Toronto Star, May 2017)

Government of Canada Still Failing First Nations Children: Canadian Human Rights Tribunal issues THIRD Compliance Order on Jordan’s Principle (Canada Newswire, May 2017)

Grand Chief Derek Nepinak Plans Walk To Celebrate Indigenous Resilience In Face Of Canada’s 150th (Huffington Post, May 2017)

Indigenous children lose cultural connection in child welfare system: Ontario and federal governments acknowledge overrepresentation of Indigenous children in system (CBC, May, 2017)

First Nations teen found dead was living in group home in Thunder Bay, Ont., chief says (CBC, May 2017)

Child advocate tells government to listen to at-risk children after heart-rending teen suicide (CBC, May 2017)

‘How many children do we have to lose?’ Ontario Children’s Aid joins call for inquest into aboriginal deaths (National Post, May 2017)

Trudeau Liberals’ failure on human rights ruling played role in First Nation girls’ suicides: Tribunal (APTN, May 2017)

Mandatory inquests in child welfare deaths? Province appears to be sticking to status quo (APTN News, May 2017)

Ojibway teen sleeping in Ottawa mall stairwell after aging out of group home (APTN News, May 2017)

Nunavut continues to leave foster kids in Ottawa group homes without local social worker (APTN News, May 2017)

Feds want to transform child welfare in Manitoba: Community engagement sessions being held in First Nations communities (Winnipeg Free Press, March, 2017)

B.C. report finds indigenous girls in care more likely to face sex abuse (Globe & Mail, October 2016)

Discrimination Against Indigenous Kids: Cindy Blackstock (Globe & Mail, April 2016)

Honouring the Truth, Reconciling for the Future (Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, 2015)

Permanency Beyond Foster Care (The Office of the Children’s Advocate Manitoba, 2015)

Feathers of Hope Report (Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth, 2014)

Social Impact Bonds

Posted on October 2, 2017

A Social impact bond is a contract with the public sector in which a commitment is made to pay for improved social outcomes that result in public sector savings.

Building Social Bonds – Impact Investing for Ontario (Deloitte)

Impact Investing Exceeds $12 Billion in Asia (Funds Global Asia, August 2018)

Majority of Impact Investors Satisfied with Investment Performance (Benefits Canada, August 2018)

Impact Investing: Don’t Call it Charity (Barron’s, August 2018)

18 Impact Investing Trends You Haven’t Seen Before and One You Have (Forbes, July 2018)

Impact Products’ Value Quadruples Over 2.5 Years (Investment Magazine, July 2018)

Morgan Stanley: The Case for Sustainable Investing (Barron’s, July 2018)

Alibaba, Tencent, and Sustainable Investing (Barron’s, July 2018)

Development Impact Bonds are Costly, Cumbersome – and Good (The Economist, July 2018)

Beyond Social Impact Bonds (Pro Bono Australia, July 2018)

World’s First Development Impact Bond for Education Shows Successful Achievement of Outcomes in its Final Year (Brookings, July 2018)

Impact Investing Needs to Break Out of its Niche (Financial News London, July 2018)

Religious Institutions Are Becoming More Involved in Sustainable Investing (Market Mogul, July 2018)

The Social Impact Revolution is Here (Forbes, June 2018)

Annual Impact Investor Survey 2018 (Global Impact Investing Network, June 2018)

Executive summary

Impact Investing May Help With Your Operating Capital Problems (NYN Media, July 2018)

Can Impact Investing Avoid the Failures of Microfinance (Harvard Business Review, June 2018)

U.K. Government Pledges Support to Expand Impact Investing (Pensions & Investments, June 2018)

Goldman Sachs Will Jump Into the Social Impact Investing World, Using Paul Tudor Jones Jones’ Metric to Build a New Exchange-Traded Fund (Financial Post, June 2018)

Fidelity Charitable Study Finds Impact Investing at Tipping Point, Announces Expansion of Its Impact Investing Program (Business Wire, June 2018)

Wealthy Millennials Fuel Impact Investing Gains (Barron’s, June 2018)

From Affordable Housing to Money Transfers for Immigrants, a $1 Billion Impact Investor Explains How She Makes Money While Making the World a Better Place (Business Insider,
June 2018)

African Impact Investors Can Have Their Cake and Eat it Too (Disrupt, June 2018)

Impact Investors Seem Happier with Their Deal Flow (Forbes, June 2018)

Impact Investing Offers New Directions for Philanthropists (NYN Media, June 2018)

Can Booming Social Bond Market Really Turn Finance to the Good Side (Ethical Corporation, June 2018)

The Invisible Heart Trailer, a Documentary That Follows Two Social Impact Bonds in North America (YouTube, 2018)

The Invisible Heart Website, a Film That Explores all Sides of the Issue and Spans Over Three Years Following Everyone Involved in the SIBs (2018)

CBC Interview with the Director of The Invisible Heart, Nadine Pequeneza (CBC, May 2018)

CBC Radio Debate with Adam Jagelewki (advocate)and David Macdonald (critic)on Social Impact Bonds (CBC Radio, May 2018)

Social Impact Bonds: Are They Too Good To Be True? (JUA Blog, May 2018)

What Happens When Social Services Become a Private Investment Product (The Spin Off, May 2018)

Why Environmental Impact Bonds are Catching On (Governing, May 2018)

“Pay for Success” is Changing the Way Cities Confront the Homeless Problem (Governing, May 2018)

Private Investment in Social Services an ‘Opportunity’ (Leader Post, May 2018)

Social Impact Bond: Film Questions Investors Profiting From Social Services (Reuters, May 2018)

A Critical Reflection on Social Impact Bonds (Stanford Social Innovation Review, May 2018)

Documentary Tracking the Fastest Growing Social Innovation in Modern History: Social Impact Bonds (The Invisible Heart, 2018)

Investing to Make Social Impact (Today Online, April 2018)

Liberals Plan to Add Social Financing to More Federal Spending (The Star, April 2018)

Impact Bonds in Developing Countries: Early Learnings from the field (Brookings, September 2017)

The pros and cons of ethical debt instruments (United Nations Development Program, September 2017)

New Study Warns NFPs Need Strong Culture and Profits to Survive (Probono Australia, September 2017)

QLD’s Latest Social Benefit Bond Targets Reoffending (Probono Australia, September 2017

Australia’s First Social Impact Bond is Growing Stronger By The Year: Australia’s First Social Impact Bond is Growing Stronger By The Year: Australia’s first social impact bond, the Uniting Newpin Social Benefit Bond (SBB), has recorded positive growth for the fourth year in a row, with more than 200 children returned to family care, while 55 families were prevented from having their children enter the out-of-home care system. (Probono Australia, September 2017)

Good Money Microfinance Celebrates Five Years of Three-Way Partnership (Probono Australia, September 2017)

ICRC launches world’s first Humanitarian Impact Bond (Devex, September 2017)

Pushing the Role of Government in Growing Impact Investment (Probono Australia, August 2017)

How Ottawa’s Budget 2018 can reduce poverty and homelessness (Globe & Mail, August 2017) – mentions SIBs as new program design that could be tested

Youth charity’s impactful work with care leavers gets a £45,000 boost (Cubria, August 2017)

Why You Should Start Considering Socially Responsible Investing (Crowdfund Insider, August 2017)

Social investment market grows to almost £2bn (Civil Society UK)

Peterborough social impact bond investors repaid in full (Civil Society UK, July 2017)

Japan’s ‘social impact bond’ gets first batch of investors (New York Daily News, July 2017)

Social impact bonds aim to fill government-spending gaps in Israel (Impact Alpha, July 2017)

Building the Australian social benefit bond market (Investment Magazine, July 2017)

Impact investment to close the SDG funding gap (United Nations Development Program, July 2017)

Aging Out of the Foster System

Posted on March 13, 2014

The “quarter-life” crisis is known to be a challenging time for youth navigating the bridge from adolescence into young adulthood. Developmental tasks for this period include youth taking definitive steps towards achieving measures of independence in areas of finance, emotional maturity, employment, housing and education. Embodied in this transition period is the view that it is a period of growth, but one that can be a difficult crossroad for many.

A Vicious Cycle in Unintended Consequences for kids who have been in the care of government

Vicious Cycle of Unintended Consequences

* “Youth Leaving Care – How Do they Fare” by MISWAA –
* 25 is the New 21
* Conference Board of Canada Report – Success for All
* When Youth Age Out of Care – Where to from There

Best Practices in Transitioning Youth Out of Care, (Child Welfare Institute, Children’s Aid Society of Toronto, March 2014)

View Article

Foundation for Sound Mental Health is Built Early in Life, as Early Experiences Shape the Architecture of the Developing Brain (Harvard University, Center on the Developing Child)

Youth in Foster Care: An Examination of Social, Mental, and Physical Risks (NYU – Department of Applied Psychology)

The Educational Outcomes of Children in Care in Manitoba (University of Manitoba – Faculty of Health Sciences)

Exploring Youth Outcomes After Aging-Out of Care (Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth)

Unemployment Rampant Among Former Foster Youth (Children’s Rights)

The Foster Care Systems are Failing Foster Children: The Implications and Practical Solutions for Better Outcomes of Youth in Care (University of Alberta – Canadian Journal of Family and Youth)

Employment Outcomes for Youth Aging-Out of Foster Care (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)

Youth Aging-Out of Foster Care: Risk and Protective Factors for Criminal Justice System Involvement (Washington State Department of Social and Health Services)

Children Placed in Out-of-Home Care as Midlife Adults: Are They Still Disadvantaged or Have They Caught Up With Their Peers? (Child Maltreatment – Sage Journals)

Child Welfare and Youth Homelessness in Canada (Homeless Hub Blog – Naomi Nichols, McGill University)

Nadine Burke Harris: How Childhood Trauma Affects Health Across a Lifetime (TED Radio Hour – National Public Radio)

A Neurocomputational Investigation of Reinforcement-Based Decision Making as a Candidate Latent Vulnerability Mechanism in Maltreated Children (Cambridge University –
Development and Psychopathology)

Homelessness During the Transition From Foster Care to Adulthood (U.S. National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health)

Pathways to and From Homelessness and Associated Psychosocial Outcomes Among Adolescents Leaving the Foster Care System (U.S. National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health)

Early Childhood Mental Health: Foundation for Sound Mental Health is Built Early in Life, as Early Experiences Shape the Architecture of the Developing Brain (Harvard University – Centre for the Developing Child)

Assessing the Long-Term Effects of Foster Care (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Institute for Research on Poverty)

Does Foster Care Protect Children (Law Journal for Social Justice)

Foster Youth Statistics: The Need (Sanctuary of Hope)

Disrupting the Pathway from Foster Care to the Justice System – A Former Prosecutor’s Perspective on Reform (Constitution Project)

Unwanted Pregnancy and Childbirth Among Adolescents in Foster Care (National Center for Youth Law)

Negative Affects of Foster Care on Emotional, Intellectual and Psychological Development (Rhawn Joseph, Ph.D. Brain Research Laboratory)

Crime During the Transition to Adulthood (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)

Foster Care and Homelessness (Foster Focus)

Foster Care Children Need Better Educational Opportunities (Heritage Foundation)

Improving Educational Outcomes for Youth in/from Care (University of Victoria – Social Work and Vancouver Foundation)

Foster Kids Need Consistent, Caring Adult – a Full-Time Mentor (Youth Today, June 2018)

How Family Separation Can Affect Kid’s Brains (New York Post, June 2018)

B.C.’s Child Welfare System Has Failed Youth Who Age Out and Must Change (Vancouver Sun, May 2018)

Helping Young People in Foster Care Heal From Trauma and Build Resilience (The Annie E. Casey Foundation, May 2018)

Youth Panel at MMIWG Hearing Sheds Light on Canada’s Foster Care System (Richmond News, April 2018)

Breaking the Cycle for “Crossover Youth” (Policy Options, April 2018)

Foster Youth Graduate High School and College at Lower Rates Than Peers (Foster Care Newsletter, March 2018)

First Nations Youth Navigates Life on His Own After Growing Up in Foster Care (CBC News, March 2018)

How Socioeconomic Disadvantages Get Under the Skin and Into the Brain to Influence Health Development Across the Lifespan (Springer, November 2017)

Foster Care Youth More Likely to be Chronic Offenders (The Crime Report, October 2017)

Exploring Youth Outcomes After Aging Out of Care, (Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth, 2017)

Fewer than half of B.C.’s Foster Kids Can Graduate High School Before 19 (CBC News, June 2016)

Foster Care Youth Need Help Stepping Into Adulthood (CBC News, May 2015)

Every Time Foster Kids Move, They Loose Months of Academic Progress (The Atlantic, February 2014)

How Can Foster Care Affect the Mind of a Child (Suzanne Robin, RN, February 2013)

Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Associated Service Variables Among Ontario Children Who Are Permanent Wards

Posted on March 11, 2014

Staff members in the child welfare sector are required to promote the safety and health of the foster children they supervise. According to the executive director of the Child Welfare League of Canada, provincial ministries commonly direct these staff to identify and address the particular emotional and behavioural needs of children in care but cannot necessarily provide the professional involvement needed (Peter Dudding, personal communication, May 12,2006). For decades, researchers and practitioners in children’s mental health and child welfare have argued that the mental health needs of children in care must be identified and addressed, yet these needs are still not uniformly assessed. Uniformity could be achieved if psychiatric evaluations or psychological assessments were mandatory, as has been proposed else-where. Further, documenting the actual rates of psychiatric diagnoses among samples of foster children is an important building block toward understanding determinants of mental health in this population and may assist future efforts to estimate ongoing contacts with psychiatrists and other mental health service providers.

View Article

The History of Child Welfare in Canada

Posted on February 26, 2014


What is the history of the Children’s Aid Society?

The Children’s Aid Society (CAS) was established in February of 1853 by group of social reformers—among them was Charles Loring Brace.[1] Brace was selected by the group to become the Secretary of the organization.[2] The founders were motivated by the desire to inform policy and provide social services to poor, disabled and homeless children, working women, and impoverished families.[3] At the time of the organization’s inception the founders were concerned with the “burden upon [New York] city[‘s] resources [which was] caused by unprecedented numbers of immigrants.”[4] In addition, they were concerned that “impoverished immigrant children were turning to crime or barely surviving as homeless vagabonds selling matches or sweeping streets.”[5] In order to eradicate this problem CAS believed that social services and reforms that focused on “gainful work, education, and a wholesome family atmosphere” would change the city of New York.[6]

Mr. John Joseph Kelso brought the Children’s Aid Society to Toronto in 1891.[7] Due to the number of homeless and impoverished children in the city, Kelso was determined to create a social safety net that would protect abandoned children. His actions led to the enactment of the Act for the Prevention of Cruelty to and Better Protection of Children in 1893.[8] The Act permitted the creation of semi-public organizations, namely the Children’s Aid Societies, to legally care for neglected children. The CAS was allowed to manage and supervise children and collect monies from municipalities.[9] In addition, the Act authorized the transfer of guardianship from parents to a CAS. Prior to Mr. Kelso’s reforms there were no official child welfare program in Canada.[10] His efforts created the infrastructure we use today to support children in care. The CAS’s work has changed how we think about children’s rights and has helped us understand the responsibility we have as community members for disenfranchised children and youth.

How many children are affected by adoption?

Today there are 7 million Canadians that are affected by adoption; however, it remains a misunderstood and stigmatized social issue.[11] There is currently an “adoption crisis”[12] in Canada—more than 300,000 children benefit from child welfare. Of the 300,000 roughly 76,000 are children living in institutional care.[13] However, there are 30,000 children and youth available for adoption.[14] Regrettably of the 30,000 an estimated 2,000 children and youth are adopted each year from the public system.[15] Sadly, children often wait 5 years or more to be adopted. In addition, they move an average of 3 or more times in foster care and may be separated from their siblings. The average child waiting to be adopted is 8 years old. However, in Ontario 71% of the children adopted in 2013 were ages 0 to 5.[16]

Who looks after children in care?

Each province assumes responsibility for children and youth in the welfare system.[17] There is currently no centralized agency in Canada to coordinate adoptions. For example there are 53 separate child-welfare agencies in Ontario alone.[18] In fact, Canada has no national plan with priority for disadvantaged children.[19] In order to address this issue, the Standing Committee on Human Resources, Skills and Social Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities has recommended the “federal government examine the possibility of working with the provinces and territories to create a national database to enhance knowledge about children and youth in the care of the child welfare agencies and the need for adoptive families across the country, and that the database be available online on a user-friendly website that would allow interested Canadians to search for information on adoption in Canada.”[20] As it currently stands child welfare agencies are responsible for responding to protection issues, however, they lack the resources to effectively address issues in a timely and well-coordinated manner.[21]

What is the main factor that leads children into the Canadian welfare system?

The Canadian Council of Child and Youth Advocates purport that “poverty is an underlying factor diminishing the realization of children’s rights and increasing their vulnerability in their everyday worlds.”[22] For example in Ontario poverty costs each household between $2,299 and $2,895 per year.[23] Further, if child poverty were eradicated in Ontario, there would be additional income tax revenue between $1.3 billion and 1.6 billion each year.[24] Within the Canadian context persistent disadvantages remain ignored. Child poverty has created a gap in life chances; for example, only 30% of youth in the system are expected to graduate high school compared to the 88% national average.[25] Further, only 2% go on to post-secondary education, while the general average for the population is 24%.[26] The fact is if children grow up in poverty they are more likely to live in poverty as adults.[27] Currently Canada has a 13.3% child poverty rate—we are behind the United Kingdom (12.1%) and Australia (10.9%).[28]

Among 25 OECD countries, Canada successfully completed one benchmark out of ten on the UNICEF report card. The report card evaluates childcare in OECD countries based on “a set of minimum standards for protecting the rights of children in their most vulnerable and formative years.”[29] Most notably Sweden, United Kingdom, the US and Mexico achieved a higher standing than Canada. The results indicate that Canada does not have “a national plan with priority for disadvantaged children;” and does not have a “child poverty rate less than 10%.”[30] Canada has failed to comply with internationally recognized benchmarks that are established to prioritize the development of our children.

David Morley, the president and CEO of UNICEF Canada believes that, “It is clear Canada can do better. Protecting and promoting the well-being of our children must become a national priority.” In an UNICEF child wellbeing study Canada ranks 17th out of 29. Canada ranked 14th in educational wellbeing, 15th in material well-being, 16th in behaviour and risks and 27th in health and safety.[31] Canada is behind in its efforts to increase the wellbeing of our children.

Why do foster children face so many adversities?

Many foster care children were abused or neglected, which makes them susceptible to developmental issues and mental illness.[32] For instance, more than two-thirds of children in care in B.C. will reach the age of 19 without a high school diploma. Further, 65% of youth in care were diagnosed with a mental illness at least once in their childhood.[33] Without a stable community, emotional support and financial resources foster children are likely to fall behind in school, which can decrease their chances of securing stable employment or making an adequate living wage. Did you know that “as a group, kids in permanent care are almost seven times more likely to be in special education programs than all other students”? Over 40% of children in care have physical disabilities or a chronic health problem. In addition, roughly 30% have behavioural issues or serious mental health problems.[34] Furthermore, being frequently moved from house to house causes many to fall behind in school, which can make it difficult to complete one’s diploma.[35] And even after successfully completing high school it is difficult to gain access to the financial support needed to pursue a post-secondary degree.[36]

What happens to youth that “age out” of the system?

Many of the children in care “age out” of the system by the age of 16 or 17, which Rita Soronen, president and CEO of the Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption in Canada and the United States, has suggested will increase their chances of being socially, politically and economically disadvantaged.[37] One in five youth in Canada turns 18, leaving the system without ever being adopted.[38] Research indicates that former Crown wards are “less likely to finish high school, more likely to become parents themselves at a young age, more likely to be users of the mental health system, more likely to require social assistance, more likely to rely on homeless shelters, to experience poverty as adults and more likely to be in conflict with the law.”[39] Aging out of foster care is a huge burden for many; crown wards are no longer guaranteed shelter, food, clothing and guidance.[40] In British Columbia alone every year about 700 teens lose the support granted to them by the ministry for Children and Families.[41] For many this means that they no longer have the help of social workers or transition workers who provide counseling, free food vouchers and bus tickets.[42]

Focusing on the development of an effective adoption system in Canada will ensure the sustainability of public resources. Soronen explains, “Criminal activity, homelessness, mental illness, substance abuse, teen pregnancy—all become more likely. Ironically, this is likely to lead to another generation of children living out their lives in foster care or institutional care, as their parent won’t be able to provide for them.”[43] These are urgent issues that the Canadian public has a right to know, because if the 0.04% of the Canadians that have considered adoption went through with the process every child would have a permanent home already.[44]

What are the social costs of having youth in care “age out”?

The social cost of having youth leave the welfare system prematurely is high. Gary Stangler—the executive director of the Jim Casey Youth Opportunities Initiative in the United States—suggests “on average, for every young person who age out of foster care, taxpayers and communities pay $300,000 in social cost like public assistance, incarceration, and lost wages to a community over that person’s lifetime.”[45] Further he purports that “this problem incurs almost $8 billion in social costs to the United States every year.”[46] Already nineteen American states have extended their support to the age of 21.[47] Further, the U.S. government has made it easier for individual states to support foster children until the age of 21 years if they are in school and working.[48] If we do not prevent these issues through options like adoption, it can also be a great burden to taxpayers in Canada.[49]

In Ontario alone it costs an estimated $32,000 to keep a Crown ward in public care. The province pays $1.3 billion per year on child welfare services.[50] In the 2007/08 fiscal year it cost $42,200 to care for a child.[51] However, the social cost is more—if children leave the system prematurely there is a higher chance that they will end up on “welfare and live in precarious housing, abuse alcohol and drugs, get arrested and jailed, drop out of high school, and have fragile social support networks.”[52] And as a result of our failing system, it was reported in the 2013 Vancouver homeless count there were 139 youth (19-24) and 36 children (under the age of 19) that did not have homes.[53]

Further, 11% of youth in care were charged through the Youth Criminal Justice Act of 2007.[54] It costs roughly $312 a day to accommodate an inmate—that is $113,880 a year.[55] However, one must note that the average cost of housing youth in a detention center varies. In 2011, it cost anywhere from $331 to $3,012 per day to care for a youth in an agency-operated open-custody facility.[56] The cost to accommodate an inmate in an agency-operated secure-custody facility ranged from $475 to $1,642, whilst it cost from $1,001 to $1,483 to house an inmate in a ministry-operated facility per day.[57] In Calgary it costs as much as $42,000 to stay in a shelter for one year. In addition, it costs about $120,000 to be accommodated in a psychiatric hospital.[58] The financial impact is immense. In fact, poverty costs taxpayers more than $24-billion a year.[59] In Canada 43% of respondents that had experiences with youth homelessness were previously involved with the child welfare system.[60]

Too many children in care are faced with social and financial barriers immediately upon leaving the system.[61] The report 25 is the New 21 suggests “due to instability in the parental home and multiple placements throughout their time in care, youth often take longer to reach milestones of independence compared to their peers.”[62] Permanent and stable familial connections are needed in order to be effective members of society.

Which communities are most vulnerable?

First Nation children are disproportionally represented in the child welfare system in Canada.[63] Aboriginal children comprise less than 6% of the child population, however, they represent an estimated 26% of the children placed in care.[64] For instance, the Canadian Council of Child and Youth Advocates reports that “in British Columbia, Aboriginal children are six times more likely to be taken in care than non-Aboriginal children and in 2010 represented 54% of the provinces alternative care child population.”[65] In other provinces and territories within Canada there is also “alarming levels” of “over-representation” in the child welfare system.[66] Aboriginal children constitute from 60% to 78% of the population in care in some territories and provinces.[67] Thus, “First Nations children are among the most disadvantaged of all children in Canada.”[68] Research indicates that roughly one in four Aboriginal children live in poverty compared to one in ten children in Canada more generally.[69] Child welfare issues are the result of “poverty, community isolation, lack of social services infrastructure and higher living costs.”[70] For instance, Aboriginal peoples are “four times more likely to live in a home in need of major repair (28% vs. 7%) than non-First Nations people living in Canada.[71]” As a result, many children and youth are forced to live in unhealthy environments. Further, “education is under-funded by the government”—roughly 50% of Aboriginal students drop out of high school. The outcome is that 40% of First Nations people in Canada aged 20 to 24 do not have a high school diploma, while only 13% of non-Aboriginal Canadians do not.[72] The legacy of colonialism and residential school, among many other contemporary and historical barriers have left Aboriginal children and youth trapped in the foster system.

How do Canadians feel about adoption?

Sadly Canada has a lower rate of adoption than many other countries.[73] Why is that? Well, roughly two in five Canadians report that they are not familiar with adoption.[74] Foster care is an issue that many Canadians feel is not talked about enough.[75] Given the lack of accessible information on adoption and foster care it is not surprising that many children and youth are trapped in the system. When asked to describe foster care in Canada many Canadians replied “unfamiliar”, “don’t know” or “not sure”.[76] Fortunately, six in ten Canadians believe that foster care is an issue that needs more media attention.[77]

The Dave Thomas Foundation’s “Canadian Foster Care Adoption Attitudes Survey” reports, “21% of Canadians are considering or have considered adopting a child.”[78] However among those who have indicated a willingness to adopt a child, 82% suggest that the paperwork and bureaucracy involved are their biggest concern. Further, 76% of these individuals are concerned about the costs involved in raising a child to adulthood.[79] However, public adoption is not very costly[80]—public adoption can average from $0 to $3,000. However, through a licensed private agency it cost anywhere from $10,000 to $20,000. International adoption is the most expensive; it can range from $20,000 to $30,000.[81] In order to offset some of these cost the federal government grants tax credits to eligible parents.[82]

Related Articles

Sixties Scoop Reflect on Lives ‘Never to Be The Same’ (CBC News, May 2018)

Alberta Premier to Make Historic Apology to Sixties Scoop Survivors (The Star, May 2018)

Kawartha Children’s Aid Society Acknowledging Role in Residential School Horrors (My Kawartha, May 2018)

Reconciliation Requires More Than Just ‘Lip-service’ (CBC News, May 2018)

[1] “About Our Founder,” Children’s Aid Society, accessed March 1, 2014,

[2] Ibid.

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.

[7] “History Of Child Welfare,” Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies, accessed February 27, 2014,

[8] “History,” Children’s Aid Society of Simcoe County, accessed February 1, 2014,

[9] “History Of Child Welfare.”

[10] “History.”

[11] “Myths and Realities,” Adoption Council of Canada, accessed February 7, 2014,

[11] Standing Committee on Human Resources, Skills and Social Development and the Status of Persons with Disabilities, Federal Support Measures To Adoptive Parents, chair Ed Komarnicki, 41st Parliament, 1st Session, 9.

[13] Michael Hill, “A Single Spark,” Dolce Vita Magazine (Winter 2013, 2014): 34.

[14] “Myths and Realities.”

[15] Federal Support Measures To Adoptive Parents, 6.

[16] “Adoption Council of Canada Applauds Increase in Adoption Tax Credit,” Digital Journal, accessed February 12, 2014,

[17] 2011/2012 Report To The Legislature, Provincial Advocate for Children Youth, 11.

[18] The Globe and Mail, “Crown Wards: A Group Of Kids That Are Not All Right,” The Globe and Mail, November 1, 2010, accessed January 3, 2014,

[19] Globe and Mail What Canada can Learn from the World Oct 24 2013

[20] Federal Support Measures To Adoptive Parents, chair Ed Komarnicki, 10.

[21] Realizing A Sustainable Child Welfare System In Ontario, Commission to Promote Sustainable Child Welfare, September 2012, 82.

[22] Aboriginal Children Canada Must Do Better: Today And Tomorrow, Canadian Council Of Child And Youth Advocates, 2011, 34.

[23] Breaking the cycle: Ontario’s Poverty Reduction Strategy 1

[24] Breaking the cycle: Ontario’s Poverty Reduction Strategy 1

[25] Hill, “A Single Spark,” 34.

[26] “Adoption Council of Canada Applauds Increase in Adoption Tax Credit.”

[27] Breaking the cycle: Ontario’s Poverty Reduction Strategy 7

[28] Measuring Child Poverty 3

[29] The Child Care Transition: A League Table Of Early Childhood Education And Care In Economically Advanced Countries, UNICEF, April 2008.

[30] Ibid.

[31] The Canadian Press, “UNICEF Child Well-Being Index: Canada Ranked 17th Out Of 29 Wealthy Nations,” Huffington Post, October 10, 2013, accessed January 3, 2014,

[32] Tracy Sherlock, “Part Four: From Care To Where? Early Brain Development Susceptible To Neglect, Abuse,” Vancouver Sun, March 4, 2014, accessed March 6, 2014,

[33] Vancouver Sun, “Some Facts About Foster Care In B.C.,” Vancouver Sun, February 24, 2014, accessed February 24, 2014,

[34] Tracy Sherlock, “Part Three: From Care To Where? A continuing Need For Support,” March 4, 2014, accessed March 5, 2014,

[35] Ibid.

[36] Ibid.

[37] Rita Soronen, “Rita Soronen: Solving Canada’s Adoption Crisis,” National Post, November 26, 2013, accessed January 3, 2014,

[38] “Adoption Council of Canada Applauds Increase in Adoption Tax Credit.”

[39] “Forever Families: Ontario’s Adoption System,” Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services, accessed February 27, 2014,

[40] Tracy Sherlock and Lori Culbert, “Part One: From Care To Where? Aging Out Of The Foster System,” Vancouver Sun, March 4, 2014, accessed March 5, 2014,

[41] Ibid.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Soronen, “Rita Soronen: Solving Canada’s Adoption Crisis.”

[44] Ibid.

[45] Gary Stangler, “Aging Out Of The Foster Care: The Costs Of Doing Nothing Affect Is All,” Huffington Post, July 28, 2013, accessed February 3, 2014,

[46] Ibid.

[47] Sherlock and Culbert, “Part One: From Care To Where? Aging Out Of The Foster System.”

[48] Ibid.

[49] Ibid.

[50] “Forever Families: Ontario’s Adoption System.”

[51] Pre-Budget Consultation: Submission To The Standing Committee On Finance And Economic Affairs, Ontario Association of Children’s Aid Societies, December 2008.

[52] Sherlock and Culbert, “Part One: From Care To Where? Aging Out Of The Foster System.”

[53] Culbert, “Part Two: From Care To Where? Left To Pick Up His Own Pieces.”

[54] 25 Is The New 21: The Costs And Benefits Of Providing Extended Care And Maintenance To Ontario Youth In Care Unit Age 25, Provincial Advocate for Children And Youth, 2012, 19.

[55] Anna Mehler Paperny, “Corrections Canada To Make Budget Cuts As Prison Population Grows,” The Globe and Mail, August 19, 2012, accessed March 1, 2014

[56] Ministry of Children and Youth Services, Youth Justice Services Program, 294.

[57] Ibid.

[58] Postmedia News, “Canadians Cover $24-Billion A Year In Poverty Costs: Report,” National Post, September 28, 2011, accessed January 7, 2014,

[59] Ibid.

[60] 25 Is The New 21, Provincial Advocate for Children And Youth, 2012, 20.

[61] Stangler, “Aging Out Of The Foster Care: The Costs Of Doing Nothing Affect Is All.”

[62] 25 Is The New 21, Provincial Advocate for Children And Youth, 2012, 16.

[63] Aboriginal Children Canada Must Do Better, 26.

[64] “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs),” Canadian Child Welfare Research Portal, accessed February 5, 2014,

[65] Aboriginal Children Canada Must Do Better, 26.

[66] Ibid.

[67] “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).”

[68] Feather Of Hope: A First Nations Youth Action Plan, Provincial Advocate for Children And Youth, 2014, 37.

[69] Aboriginal Children Canada Must Do Better, 34.

[70] “Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).”

[71] Feathers Of Hope, 37.

[72] Ibid, 74.

[73] “Did You Know That,” Canadian Coalition for the Rights of Children, accessed January 25, 2014,

[74] Canadian Foster Care Adoption Attitudes Survey, Dave Thomas Foundation for Adoption Canada, July 2013, 10.

[75] Child Welfare League Of Canada, “Understanding Perceptions Of Foster Care In Canada: Every Child Matters II Project,” (presentation, June 19, 2012) 13.

[76] Ibid, 24.

[77] Ibid.

[78] Canadian Foster Care Adoption Attitudes Survey, 8.

[79] Ibid, 9.

[80] Aboriginal Children Canada Must Do Better.

[81] “Myths and Realities.”

[82] Ibid.